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Table 3 Tobit model estimations of cognition in old age

From: Cognitive functioning among poor elderly persons: evidence from Peru

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
Male (yes = 1) 0.890*** 0.887*** 0.892*** 0.891*** 0.079 −0.143* −0.102 −0.155* −0.125 −0.179
(0.067) (0.065) (0.065) (0.065) (0.073) (0.081) (0.096) (0.089) (0.095) (0.117)
Mother tongue Quechua (yes = 1) −0.795*** −0.795*** −0.795*** −0.797*** −0.679*** −0.674*** −0.682*** −0.308*** −0.358** 0.249**
(0.182) (0.181) (0.181) (0.183) (0.192) (0.186) (0.172) (0.093) (0.148) (0.098)
Mother tongue Aymara (yes = 1) −1.584*** −1.583*** −1.580*** −1.587*** −1.551*** −1.571*** −1.516*** −0.950*** −1.070*** −0.829***
(0.095) (0.095) (0.093) (0.093) (0.132) (0.129) (0.148) (0.126) (0.202) (0.237)
Age −0.107*** −0.345 18.837**   −0.091*** −0.086*** −0.086*** −0.081*** −0.085*** −0.083***
(0.008) (0.237) (7.849)   (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.008) (0.007) (0.007)
Age^2   0.017 −2.648**        
  (0.017) (1.087)        
Age^3    0.123**        
   (0.050)        
Age 68–70     −0.245**       
    (0.115)       
Age 71–73     −0.612***       
    (0.081)       
Age 74–76     −1.074***       
    (0.094)       
Age 77–80     −1.275***       
    (0.119)       
Illiterate (yes = 1)      −1.720*** −1.701*** −1.661*** −1.737*** −1.696*** −1.673***
     (0.075) (0.078) (0.079) (0.084) (0.083) (0.077)
Retired (yes = 1)      −0.367*** −0.367*** −0.410*** −0.510*** −0.441*** −0.471***
     (0.081) (0.076) (0.064) (0.051) (0.053) (0.075)
Arm span       0.013*** 0.012** 0.012*** 0.011*** 0.013***
      (0.005) (0.005) (0.004) (0.004) (0.005)
Haemoglobin       0.006*** 0.006*** 0.006*** 0.006*** 0.006***
      (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002)
Urban (yes = 1)        0.241** 0.249** 0.364** 0.360**
       (0.101) (0.108) (0.148) (0.168)
Constant 19.303*** 27.854*** −431.315** 12.250*** 19.176*** 16.166*** 16.178*** 15.538*** 15.674*** 15.215***
(0.540) (8.340) (188.521) (0.079) (0.582) (0.813) (0.798) (0.623) (0.981) (0.694)
Department fixed effects No No No No No No No Yes No No
District level variablesa No No No No No No No No Yes No
District fixed effects No No No No No No No No No Yes
Observations 3884 3884 3884 3884 3884 3884 3884 3884 3884 3884
Pseudo R-squared 0.026 0.026 0.026 0.026 0.051 0.052 0.053 0.060 0.055 0.094
  1. Standard errors clustered at department level are shown in parentheses
  2. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01
  3. aThe set of variables at district level includes poverty rate, mean and standard deviation of altitude in the district, number of social assistance centres, number of hospitals, number of social centres for old age, dummies for whether the coverage of electricity and water is at least 50% of the total district and a dummy for sewerage system