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Table 4 Employment rates of female temporary foreign workers before and after transition to permanent residence, by streams, 1996 to 2012

From: Acquisition of permanent residence by temporary foreign workers in Canada: a panel study of labour market outcomes before and after the status transition

  Group 1: international agreements Group 2: Canadian interests—employment benefits Group 3: other Canadian interests Group 4: temporary foreign workers with labour market opinion Group 5: Live-in Caregiver Program
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
  Percentage points
Years prior to transition
 5 0.032 0.035 0.063 0.066 −0.023 −0.019 0.001 0.003 0.044*** 0.043***
 4 0.014 0.016 0.034 0.037 −0.029** −0.026** 0.013 0.014 0.034*** 0.033***
 3 0.030** 0.031** 0.020 0.021 −0.026*** −0.023** 0.000 0.001 0.030*** 0.029***
 2 0.027** 0.027** 0.049** 0.051** −0.015** −0.014** 0.009 0.010 0.025*** 0.024***
 1 0.004 0.004 0.018 0.018 −0.032*** −0.032*** −0.001 −0.001 0.015*** 0.014***
Years post transition
 1 −0.004 −0.003 0.021 0.022* 0.017*** 0.020*** 0.000 0.000 −0.026*** −0.022***
 2 −0.016* −0.015* 0.021 0.023 0.011*** 0.014*** −0.008 −0.007 −0.043*** −0.039***
 3 −0.030*** −0.029** 0.004 0.005 0.013*** 0.014*** −0.020** −0.018** −0.048*** −0.045***
 4 −0.036*** −0.035*** 0.001 0.001 0.010** 0.011** −0.025*** −0.024*** −0.054*** −0.051***
 5 −0.048*** −0.047*** −0.025 −0.024 0.011** 0.011** −0.033*** −0.032*** −0.051*** −0.050***
Months of full-time postsecondary education −0.012*** −0.011* −0.014*** −0.010*** −0.014***
Mean of employment rates 0.923 0.923 0.874 0.874 0.778 0.778 0.917 0.917 0.945 0.945
  Number
R-squared 0.454 0.457 0.494 0.496 0.524 0.527 0.464 0.466 0.337 0.342
Sample size 17,135 17,135 7793 7793 209,133 209,133 33,135 33,135 242,322 242,322
  1. Notes: (a) “months of full-time postsecondary education” is computed using information on federal non-refundable full-time education credits and deductions on the T1 Personal Master File; (b) the indicator of missing postsecondary education information is controlled for in Model 2. Sources: Statistics Canada, Temporary Residents file, Immigrant Landing file and Canadian Employer-Employee Dynamics Database
  2. … not applicable
  3. *significantly different from reference category (p < 0.05); **significantly different from reference category (p < 0.01); ***significantly different from reference category (p < 0.001); significantly different from reference category (p < 0.10)