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Table 8 Bivariate probit results: probit coefficients for school enrollment and remittance reception

From: Mixed effects of remittances on child education

Panel A. First stage: remittance reception (1) (2) (3)
Instruments    
Lagged migration network 9.983*** 9.604*** 9.528***
  (0.2105) (0.2143) (0.2154)
Migrant’s age between 20 and 50   1.120*** 0.483***
   (0.0119) (0.0150)
Migrant resides in the USA    0.951***
    (0.0189)
Migrants resided in Europe    1.084***
    (0.0171)
Controls    
Age 0.023 0.022 0.021
  (0.2105) (0.0183) (0.0184)
Female (1 = yes) 0.003 0.003 0.004
  (0.0034) (0.0034) (0.0034)
Rural (1 = yes) 0.004 −0.007 −0.007
  (0.0055) (0.0056) (0.0056)
Migrant relatives 0.732*** 0.315*** 0.109***
  (0.0074) (0.0071) (0.0068)
Wealth index 2.333*** 2.300*** 2.294***
  (0.0220) (0.0222) (0.0223)
Infants in household −0.028*** −0.018*** −0.015***
  (0.0035) (0.0034) (0.0034)
Panel B. Second stage: school enrollment (1) (2) (3)
Remittance reception (1 = yes) 0.184*** 0.169*** 0.148***
  (0.0334) (0.0246) (0.0225)
Age −0.228*** −0.228*** −0.228***
  (0.0159) (0.0159) (0.0159)
Female (1 = yes) −0.012*** −0.012*** −0.012***
  (0.0027) (0.0027) (0.0027)
Rural (1 = yes) −0.085*** −0.085*** −0.085***
  (0.0036) (0.0036) (0.0036)
Migrant relatives −0.043*** −0.039*** −0.034***
  (0.0084) (0.0068) (0.0064)
Wealth index 1.958*** 1.962*** 1.968***
  (0.0173) (0.0161) (0.0158)
Infants in household −0.152*** −0.152*** −0.152***
  (0.0019) (0.0019) (0.0019)
ρ −0.069 −0.063 −0.052
χ2 for Wald’s test of ρ=0 16.733 25.093 20.909
p value for Wald’s test of ρ=0 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses. Notes: The sample includes children between 12 and 17 years old (N = 1,533,133). All model specifications also control for age squared, ethnicity, presence of a disability, parental highest level of education, and province fixed effects. Additional model results available upon request
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1