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Table 10 Mincer income regressions across gender, with industry and occupation added (OLS)

From: Just like a woman? New comparative evidence on the gender income gap across Eastern Europe and Central Asia

  Kazakhstan Macedonia Moldova Serbia Tajikistan Ukraine
  Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females
Age 0.052*** 0.034* 0.030* 0.034* 0.014 0.005 0.018 0.01 0.019 0.017 0.012 0.005
[0.013] [0.018] [0.016] [0.019] [0.018] [0.014] [0.013] [0.016] [0.013] [0.016] [0.011] [0.012]
Age2/100 − 0.060*** − 0.038* − 0.035* − 0.031 − 0.018 − 0.009 − 0.021 − 0.005 − 0.023 − 0.023 − 0.017 0
[0.016] [0.021] [0.018] [0.023] [0.020] [0.017] [0.015] [0.020] [0.015] [0.019] [0.014] [0.015]
Years of schooling 0.044*** 0.038** 0.042*** 0.040*** 0.077*** 0.054*** 0.041*** 0.054*** 0.018 0.015 0.007 0.049***
[0.012] [0.017] [0.009] [0.011] [0.019] [0.014] [0.014] [0.011] [0.015] [0.014] [0.010] [0.010]
Public − 0.002 − 0.145 0.111* − 0.047 − 0.340*** − 0.222*** 0.013 − 0.119* − 0.033 − 0.159 0.005 − 0.184***
[0.071] [0.099] [0.061] [0.081] [0.108] [0.085] [0.064] [0.067] [0.102] [0.135] [0.053] [0.063]
Mixed 0.075 − 0.121 0.037 − 0.114 − 0.567** − 0.124 − 0.091 − 0.121 − 0.034 − 0.071 0.087 0.063
[0.111] [0.140] [0.174] [0.178] [0.249] [0.256] [0.096] [0.082] [0.110] [0.106] [0.067] [0.122]
Coop, NGO, etc. − 0.031 − 0.049 − 0.630** − 0.058 NA NA − 0.084 0.061 0.11 − 0.268 − 0.142 − 0.415**
[0.177] [0.126] [0.258] [0.155]    [0.265] [0.225] [0.200] [0.171] [0.176] [0.202]
Sector not specified 0.015 − 0.279 − 0.405** − 0.848** − 0.16 − 0.407* 0.267 0.05 0.095 − 0.185 0.108 − 0.319
[0.146] [0.287] [0.196] [0.386] [0.210] [0.228] [0.213] [0.197] [0.199] [0.164] [0.131] [0.226]
No written contract − 0.183** − 0.025 − 0.014 0.076 − 0.076 − 0.192 − 0.482*** − 0.043 0.033 − 0.08 0.024 − 0.035
[0.072] [0.097] [0.096] [0.102] [0.158] [0.136] [0.120] [0.191] [0.077] [0.081] [0.064] [0.082]
Contract: do not know/refuse − 0.003 − 0.044 − 0.007 0.09 − 0.323* 0.262** − 0.289* − 0.052 − 0.267** 0.196 0.023 0.054
[0.191] [0.200] [0.144] [0.178] [0.191] [0.118] [0.175] [0.112] [0.132] [0.248] [0.092] [0.072]
No soc security on job − 0.173*** 0.013 − 0.163* − 0.157 − 0.123 0.072 − 0.047 − 0.341** − 0.057 − 0.075 − 0.047 − 0.063
[0.061] [0.080] [0.083] [0.120] [0.107] [0.078] [0.092] [0.152] [0.090] [0.141] [0.047] [0.045]
Soc sec: do not know/refuse 0.058 0.171 − 0.152 0.03 0.261 − 0.074 − 0.273 − 0.034 0.074 0.096 − 0.181** 0.084
[0.163] [0.187] [0.144] [0.281] [0.309] [0.159] [0.248] [0.130] [0.215] [0.244] [0.088] [0.063]
Mining 0.343** 0.415 0.467** − 0.12 0.846** 0.470** 0.363 0.312 0.672*** − 0.157 0.443*** 0.408*
[0.154] [0.367] [0.191] [0.262] [0.342] [0.205] [0.231] [0.297] [0.245] [0.166] [0.159] [0.222]
Manufacturing and processing 0.441*** 0.173 0.295 − 0.302 0.043 0.379** − 0.05 0.265** 0.261* − 0.101 0.427*** 0.397*
[0.107] [0.208] [0.192] [0.315] [0.183] [0.150] [0.160] [0.127] [0.134] [0.093] [0.118] [0.210]
Production and distribution 0.342** 0.415** 0.580*** 0.208 0.386* 0.838*** 0.234 0.284* 0.25 NA 0.483** 0.549**
[0.153] [0.189] [0.207] [0.291] [0.234] [0.227] [0.207] [0.151] [0.276]   [0.230] [0.225]
Construction 0.382*** 0.316 0.465** 0.044 0.395** 0.587** 0.083 0.034 0.006 0.099 0.407*** 0.640***
[0.098] [0.207] [0.191] [0.479] [0.191] [0.287] [0.165] [0.288] [0.103] [0.184] [0.110] [0.214]
Trade, repair, etc. 0.305*** 0.029 0.349* − 0.228 0.601*** 0.607*** − 0.071 0.047 0.187 0.374* 0.340*** 0.399**
[0.100] [0.187] [0.202] [0.313] [0.192] [0.131] [0.158] [0.140] [0.152] [0.206] [0.108] [0.202]
Hotels and restaurants − 0.225 0.227 0.326 − 0.005 1.311*** 0.784*** − 0.126 − 0.093 − 0.285 0.441 0.550*** 0.268
[0.280] [0.238] [0.201] [0.317] [0.246] [0.251] [0.178] [0.208] [0.202] [0.387] [0.153] [0.270]
Transport, storage, and comm. 0.399*** 0.530** 0.316 − 0.183 0.606*** 0.762*** − 0.131 0.718*** 0.118 0.514 0.357*** 0.487**
[0.100] [0.222] [0.196] [0.388] [0.199] [0.152] [0.164] [0.155] [0.154] [0.458] [0.117] [0.227]
Financial services 0.245 0.322 0.526*** 0.039 0.664*** 0.467*** − 0.196 0.214 0.082 0.141 0.524*** 0.594***
[0.246] [0.256] [0.202] [0.311] [0.215] [0.163] [0.213] [0.155] [0.194] [0.219] [0.138] [0.218]
Renting, retail, etc. 0.356** 0.046 0.251 − 0.26 0.497** − 0.068 − 0.074 − 0.028 0.294 0.274 0.414*** 0.395
[0.162] [0.294] [0.225] [0.322] [0.235] [0.188] [0.175] [0.152] [0.290] [0.235] [0.133] [0.242]
Public administration, state gov. 0.277** 0.284 0.417** 0.119 0.524** 0.423*** − 0.037 0.282* 0.24 0.14 0.376*** 0.298
[0.125] [0.209] [0.203] [0.286] [0.207] [0.152] [0.164] [0.155] [0.169] [0.204] [0.132] [0.239]
Education − 0.016 0.17 0.352* − 0.153 0.236 0.301** − 0.068 0.317** − 0.307** 0.175 0.126 0.354*
[0.138] [0.189] [0.206] [0.288] [0.215] [0.125] [0.183] [0.149] [0.120] [0.145] [0.135] [0.205]
Healthcare and social activities 0.069 0.291 0.485** − 0.047 0.407* 0.205 − 0.075 0.237 − 0.364*** 0.086 0.343** 0.304
[0.185] [0.180] [0.200] [0.293] [0.243] [0.127] [0.183] [0.154] [0.118] [0.155] [0.168] [0.214]
Other activities, serving the public 0.177* 0.315* 0.309 − 0.101 0.315* 0.287** − 0.207 0.076 − 0.016 0.168 0.351*** 0.407*
[0.103] [0.187] [0.205] [0.296] [0.180] [0.136] [0.157] [0.129] [0.156] [0.204] [0.125] [0.209]
Household activities − 0.159 0.281 0.159 − 0.022 NA 0.17 − 0.492*** − 0.333 0.16 − 0.107* 0.347* 0.432*
[0.313] [0.258] [0.259] [0.309]   [0.254] [0.153] [0.247] [0.373] [0.060] [0.196] [0.241]
Exterritorial org. and religion 1.326*** 0.069 NA NA 0.066 0.665*** NA NA NA NA 0.526*** NA
[0.124] [0.207]    [0.225] [0.134]      [0.167]  
No particular industry 0.388* 0.855*** 0.179 − 0.17 − 0.059 − 0.185 − 0.17 0.014 0.259 − 0.028 0.653*** 0.725***
[0.210] [0.255] [0.201] [0.326] [0.341] [0.171] [0.262] [0.216] [0.206] [0.129] [0.140] [0.240]
Industry not available NA NA NA NA NA NA − 0.168 0.066 NA NA NA NA
       [0.205] [0.179]     
Professional, self-employed − 0.25 − 0.157 0.195 − 0.065 0.301 0.126 0.16 0.694 0.125 − 0.077 − 0.109 0.26
[0.266] [0.406] [0.131] [0.164] [0.325] [0.240] [0.292] [0.479] [0.144] [0.123] [0.274] [0.215]
Owner of a shop, craftsmen, etc. − 0.072 0.198 0.141 − 0.352* 0.292 − 0.112 0.12 0.565 0.175 − 0.306 0.012 0.495*
[0.208] [0.479] [0.138] [0.188] [0.412] [0.303] [0.294] [0.522] [0.160] [0.266] [0.256] [0.259]
Business proprietors, owner 0.085 0.004 0.315** 0.238 0.769* 0.636 − 0.067 NA 0.329 − 0.255 − 0.073 0.447*
[0.207] [0.507] [0.132] [0.181] [0.411] [0.426] [0.509]   [0.217] [0.198] [0.251] [0.245]
Professional, employed − 0.279 − 0.064 0.038 0.044 − 0.071 0.076 0.069 0.542 0.111 0.083 − 0.166 0.187
[0.220] [0.446] [0.113] [0.168] [0.271] [0.217] [0.276] [0.481] [0.215] [0.217] [0.255] [0.202]
General management, director, etc. 0.312 0.27 0.156 0.15 0.069 0.353 0.268 1.134** 0 − 0.356 0.168 0.809***
[0.200] [0.487] [0.138] [0.186] [0.438] [0.371] [0.298] [0.491] [0.345] [0.244] [0.254] [0.228]
Middle management, other man. − 0.164 − 0.042 0.211** 0.047 − 0.075 − 0.148 − 0.041 0.517 0.234 − 0.284* − 0.15 0.19
[0.210] [0.431] [0.106] [0.157] [0.307] [0.258] [0.277] [0.476] [0.162] [0.164] [0.248] [0.207]
Employed, working mainly at desk − 0.322 − 0.067 − 0.021 − 0.174 − 0.018 − 0.184 − 0.012 0.466 0.244* − 0.015 − 0.34 0.095
[0.213] [0.434] [0.103] [0.160] [0.289] [0.220] [0.282] [0.471] [0.141] [0.165] [0.266] [0.209]
Employed, not at desk, traveling − 0.249 − 0.036 0.05 − 0.319* − 0.024 − 0.338 − 0.038 0.409 0.107 0.154 − 0.21 NA
[0.203] [0.483] [0.124] [0.193] [0.254] [0.233] [0.275] [0.481] [0.198] [0.293] [0.249]  
Employed, not at desk, service − 0.159 − 0.245 0.037 − 0.255* − 0.093 − 0.208 − 0.102 0.495 0.209 0.111 − 0.349 0.106
[0.231] [0.467] [0.112] [0.151] [0.263] [0.219] [0.279] [0.480] [0.224] [0.202] [0.249] [0.209]
Supervisor 0.008 − 0.173 − 0.311** − 0.628*** − 1.069*** 0.151 0.181 0.213 0.757*** NA − 0.381 0.258
[0.231] [0.486] [0.157] [0.205] [0.309] [0.235] [0.289] [0.580] [0.198]   [0.272] [0.290]
Skilled manual worker − 0.294 − 0.306 − 0.088 − 0.549*** 0.02 − 0.065 − 0.191 0.211 0.117 0.142 − 0.312 0.095
[0.194] [0.458] [0.098] [0.156] [0.263] [0.228] [0.272] [0.461] [0.130] [0.131] [0.242] [0.201]
Other (unskilled) manual worker, servant − 0.386* − 0.526 − 0.101 − 0.309* − 0.351 − 0.24 − 0.174 0.413 − 0.076 − 0.004 − 0.527** − 0.219
[0.201] [0.446] [0.136] [0.160] [0.258] [0.223] [0.284] [0.476] [0.104] [0.111] [0.240] [0.201]
Occupation not available − 1.052** − 0.461 0.064 − 0.239 0.666** 0.591** − 0.151 0.424 0.173 − 0.142 − 0.435 0.543**
[0.438] [0.481] [0.111] [0.181] [0.259] [0.280] [0.278] [0.481] [0.169] [0.159] [0.317] [0.227]
Urban 0.372*** 0.358*** 0.032 0.076 0.193** 0.178*** 0.356*** 0.313*** 0.129 0.032 0.248*** 0.178***
[0.059] [0.076] [0.043] [0.055] [0.089] [0.056] [0.054] [0.061] [0.110] [0.095] [0.046] [0.047]
Constant 8.935*** 8.958*** 8.055*** 8.397*** 6.017*** 6.302*** 9.475*** 8.502*** 5.317*** 5.495*** 6.977*** 5.819***
[0.345] [0.627] [0.436] [0.581] [0.459] [0.412] [0.414] [0.507] [0.349] [0.375] [0.328] [0.402]
R 2 0.314 0.268 0.337 0.391 0.328 0.307 0.292 0.42 0.21 0.183 0.238 0.346
N 654 455 490 438 352 508 537 452 369 245 537 496
  1. Notes: Values in brackets are within-community correlation/clustering adjusted standard errors (Wooldridge 2010) (and therefore also (implicitly) robust (Huber 1967; White 1980)). Reference categories are as follows: private (sector), written contract (contract), rural (rural-urban location), agriculture/fishing (industry), and farming/fishing (occupation). Source: UNDP/UNICEF Social Exclusion Dataset 2010 (collected November–December 2009)
  2. *Statistically significant at 10%; **statistically significant at 5%; ***statistically significant at 1%