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Table 13 Overall income decompositions, sensitivity analysis: twofold

From: Just like a woman? New comparative evidence on the gender income gap across Eastern Europe and Central Asia

  Weight given to males relative to females/regression model used in determining the reference coefficients for decompositions:
  0 (Oaxaca 1973) 1 (Oaxaca 1973; Blinder 1973) 0.5 (Reimers 1983) Share of males (Cotton 1988) Pooled, excl. female dummy (Neumark 1988) Pooled, incl. female dummy (Jann 2008)
Kazakhstan
 Explained − 0.062** − 0.087*** − 0.074*** − 0.077*** − 0.051** − 0.076***
[0.026] [0.028] [0.024] [0.024] [0.024] [0.024]
 Unexplained 0.268*** 0.293*** 0.281*** 0.283*** 0.258*** 0.282***
[0.043] [0.041] [0.040] [0.040] [0.037] [0.040]
Macedonia
 Explained − 0.03 − 0.032* − 0.031 − 0.031 − 0.028 − 0.036*
[0.023] [0.019] [0.019] [0.019] [0.019] [0.019]
 Unexplained 0.206*** 0.208*** 0.207*** 0.207*** 0.204*** 0.212***
[0.034] [0.033] [0.032] [0.032] [0.031] [0.032]
Moldova
 Explained 0.038 0.054* 0.046* 0.045* 0.061** 0.047*
[0.026] [0.032] [0.026] [0.025] [0.025] [0.025]
 Unexplained 0.217*** 0.201*** 0.209*** 0.211*** 0.195*** 0.208***
[0.052] [0.053] [0.051] [0.051] [0.047] [0.051]
Serbia
 Explained − 0.070*** − 0.047** − 0.059*** − 0.058*** − 0.053*** − 0.059***
[0.023] [0.020] [0.020] [0.020] [0.019] [0.020]
 Unexplained 0.214*** 0.191*** 0.203*** 0.202*** 0.197*** 0.204***
[0.032] [0.031] [0.031] [0.031] [0.030] [0.031]
Tajikistan
 Explained 0.008 0.032 0.02 0.023 0.036** 0.026
[0.021] [0.020] [0.016] [0.016] [0.017] [0.016]
 Unexplained 0.164*** 0.141*** 0.153*** 0.150*** 0.137*** 0.147***
[0.049] [0.045] [0.045] [0.045] [0.042] [0.045]
Ukraine
 Explained − 0.006 − 0.005 − 0.005 − 0.005 0.011 − 0.005
[0.018] [0.013] [0.013] [0.013] [0.013] [0.013]
 Unexplained 0.311*** 0.310*** 0.310*** 0.310*** 0.294*** 0.310***
[0.032] [0.032] [0.031] [0.031] [0.029] [0.031]
  1. Notes: The numbers of observations are Kazakhstan = 1109, Macedonia = 928, Moldova = 860, Serbia = 989, Tajikistan = 614, and Ukraine = 1033. Values in brackets are within-community correlation/clustering adjusted standard errors (Wooldridge 2010) (and therefore also (implicitly) robust (Huber 1967; White 1980)). Source: UNDP/UNICEF Social Exclusion Dataset 2010 (collected November–December 2009)
  2. *: statistically significant at 10 percent; **: statistically significant at 5 percent; ***: statistically significant at 1 percent