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Table 7 Means and standard deviations of monthly income and explanatory variables by gender

From: Just like a woman? New comparative evidence on the gender income gap across Eastern Europe and Central Asia

  Kazakhstan Macedonia Moldova Serbia Tajikistan Ukraine
  Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females
Ln income 10.494 10.288 9.626 9.45 7.445 7.19 10.273 10.129 6.03 5.858 7.407 7.102
[0.675] [0.665] [0.503] [0.574] [0.799] [0.650] [0.552] [0.580] [0.560] [0.424] [0.478] [0.511]
Age 38.087 39.114 41.324 39.105 41.722 40.986 39.006 38.135 38.29 37.996 38.786 40.712
[12.096] [11.224] [11.638] [10.565] [12.842] [11.797] [10.837] [9.838] [12.098] [12.325] [11.565] [11.751]
Age2/100 15.967 16.556 18.429 16.406 19.051 18.188 16.387 15.509 16.121 15.95 16.378 17.952
[9.791] [8.989] [9.886] [8.419] [10.994] [9.736] [8.907] [7.896] [10.136] [9.794] [9.432] [10.061]
Years of schooling 12.694 13.611 13.339 13.628 12.679 12.722 12.229 13.023 12.545 12.147 13.14 13.556
[2.539] [2.524] [2.605] [2.899] [2.828] [2.778] [2.460] [2.762] [2.675] [2.927] [2.547] [2.441]
Private 0.604 0.398 0.637 0.589 0.491 0.321 0.616 0.58 0.45 0.331 0.564 0.385
[0.489] [0.490] [0.481] [0.493] [0.501] [0.467] [0.487] [0.494] [0.498] [0.471] [0.496] [0.487]
Public 0.28 0.49 0.32 0.365 0.449 0.652 0.337 0.383 0.436 0.571 0.363 0.554
[0.449] [0.500] [0.467] [0.482] [0.498] [0.477] [0.473] [0.487] [0.497] [0.496] [0.481] [0.498]
Mixed 0.057 0.062 0.008 0.016 0.017 0.01 0.022 0.022 0.035 0.065 0.048 0.042
[0.231] [0.241] [0.090] [0.126] [0.130] [0.099] [0.148] [0.147] [0.185] [0.248] [0.215] [0.202]
Coop, NGO, etc. 0.028 0.044 0.01 0.023    0.019 0.011 0.046 0.012 0.013 0.006
[0.164] [0.205] [0.101] [0.150]    [0.135] [0.105] [0.210] [0.110] [0.114] [0.078]
Sector not specified 0.032 0.007 0.024 0.007 0.043 0.018 0.006 0.004 0.033 0.02 0.011 0.012
[0.176] [0.081] [0.155] [0.083] [0.202] [0.132] [0.075] [0.066] [0.178] [0.142] [0.105] [0.109]
Written contract 0.749 0.822 0.863 0.927 0.83 0.898 0.929 0.931 0.588 0.669 0.819 0.851
[0.434] [0.383] [0.344] [0.261] [0.377] [0.303] [0.257] [0.253] [0.493] [0.471] [0.385] [0.357]
No written contract 0.228 0.147 0.104 0.055 0.128 0.061 0.045 0.035 0.366 0.302 0.143 0.111
[0.420] [0.355] [0.306] [0.228] [0.334] [0.240] [0.207] [0.185] [0.482] [0.460] [0.351] [0.314]
Contract: do not know/refuse 0.023 0.031 0.033 0.018 0.043 0.041 0.026 0.033 0.046 0.029 0.037 0.038
[0.150] [0.173] [0.178] [0.134] [0.202] [0.199] [0.159] [0.179] [0.210] [0.167] [0.190] [0.192]
Social security on job 0.208 0.209 0.857 0.897 0.707 0.734 0.873 0.885 0.198 0.135 0.335 0.319
[0.406] [0.407] [0.350] [0.304] [0.456] [0.442] [0.333] [0.319] [0.399] [0.342] [0.472] [0.466]
No social security on job 0.755 0.752 0.118 0.084 0.278 0.234 0.115 0.091 0.78 0.8 0.628 0.621
[0.430] [0.433] [0.323] [0.278] [0.449] [0.424] [0.320] [0.288] [0.414] [0.401] [0.484] [0.486]
Social security: do not know/refuse 0.037 0.04 0.024 0.018 0.014 0.031 0.011 0.024 0.022 0.065 0.037 0.06
[0.188] [0.195] [0.155] [0.134] [0.119] [0.175] [0.105] [0.154] [0.146] [0.248] [0.190] [0.239]
Rural 0.657 0.611 0.504 0.511 0.517 0.62 0.663 0.668 0.835 0.812 0.667 0.629
[0.475] [0.488] [0.500] [0.500] [0.500] [0.486] [0.473] [0.471] [0.372] [0.391] [0.472] [0.484]
Urban 0.343 0.389 0.496 0.489 0.483 0.38 0.337 0.332 0.165 0.188 0.333 0.371
[0.475] [0.488] [0.500] [0.500] [0.500] [0.486] [0.473] [0.471] [0.372] [0.391] [0.472] [0.484]
N 654 455 490 438 352 508 537 452 369 245 537 496
  1. Notes: Standard deviations in brackets under the means. Source: UNDP/UNICEF Social Exclusion Dataset 2010 (collected November–December 2009)