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Table 5 Estimated impacts of Boatlift on fertility of women living in rented and in owned homes

From: The effect of immigration shocks on native fertility outcomes: evidence from a natural experiment

  Panel A Panel B
  (1) (2) (3) (4)
  Renters Homeowners Renters Homeowners
Included covariates (a)–(i) (a)–(i) (a)–(i) (a)–(i)
Separate-year treatment effects
 1982 − 0.013 0.048 0.005 0.004
(0.044) (0.038) (0.038) (0.036)
 1983 − 0.139*** 0.013 − 0.090*** − 0.009
(0.040) (0.038) (0.026) (0.032)
 1984 − 0.129*** 0.069* − 0.053* 0.044
(0.048) (0.041) (0.029) (0.037)
 1985 − 0.025 0.007 0.018 − 0.023
(0.043) (0.028) (0.036) (0.025)
 1986 − 0.118*** − 0.005 − 0.070*** − 0.037
(0.045) (0.027) (0.026) (0.024)
 1987 − 0.061 0.042 − 0.019 0.003
(0.039) (0.032) (0.029) (0.027)
 1988 − 0.032 0.021 − 0.008 − 0.007
(0.039) (0.029) (0.028) (0.025)
Observations 7733 9903 44,963
R-squared 0.071 0.089 0.073
  1. The estimated treatment effects in panel A are obtained by estimating Eq. (3), separately for the sample of renters (column (1)) and homeowners (column (2)). For column (1), the comparison group encompasses all observations from Los Angeles, Indianapolis, and New Orleans. For column (2), the comparison group encompasses all observations from Philadelphia, Boston, and Tampa St. Petersburg. The estimated treatment effects in panel B are obtained from estimating Eq. (4). Equation (4) includes variables where the post-treatment year–Miami terms are interacted with a dummy indicating homeownership status. The comparison group in columns (3) and (4) is the same as those in Section 4.2 and consists of New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cleveland, Houston, San Diego, New Orleans, Tampa St. Petersburg, and Portland. All samples consist of women age 15–44. In all regressions, we include as control variables: MSA, year, age, ethnicity, marital status, and family income dummy variables as well as the number of previous births by an individual, the MSA-level lagged male and female unemployment rates, the level of completed education of an individual, an interaction term for ethnicity and education and an interaction term for ethnicity and marital status. Sample weights are used in all regressions. All specifications are estimated by OLS. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. ***p value < 0.01, **p value< 0.05, *p value < 0.1