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Table 8 Estimated impacts of Boatlift on fertility of women living in rented and in owned homes (using all other unaffected MSAs as the comparison)

From: The effect of immigration shocks on native fertility outcomes: evidence from a natural experiment

  Panel A Panel B
  (1) (2) (3) (4)
  Renters Homeowners Renters Homeowners
Included covariates (a)–(i) (a)–(i) (a)–(i) (a)–(i)
Separate-year treatment effects
 1982 − 0.022 0.022 0.007 − 0.006
(0.043) (0.036) (0.038) (0.035)
 1983 − 0.108*** 0.009 − 0.082*** − 0.018
(0.031) (0.031) (0.023) (0.030)
 1984 − 0.086*** 0.058 − 0.054** 0.030
(0.033) (0.036) (0.026) (0.035)
 1985 − 0.009 0.005 0.023 − 0.031
(0.040) (0.026) (0.035) (0.025)
 1986 − 0.070** − 0.004 − 0.049** − 0.030
(0.032) (0.024) (0.025) (0.022)
 1987 − 0.039 0.019 − 0.018 − 0.007
(0.034) (0.027) (0.027) (0.026)
 1988 − 0.020 0.020 0.004 − 0.006
(0.034) (0.026) (0.028) (0.025)
Observations 47,374 67,903 115,277
R-squared 0.067 0.076 0.068
  1. The estimated treatment effects in panel A are obtained by estimating Eq. (3), separately for the sample of renters (column (1)) and homeowners (column (2)). The estimated treatment effects in panel B are obtained from estimating Eq. (4). Equation (4) includes variables where the post-treatment year–Miami terms are interacted with a dummy indicating homeownership status. In all cases, the comparison groups encompass observations from all identified metropolitan areas except Miami. In all regressions, we include as control variables the following: MSA, year, age, ethnicity, marital status, and family income dummy variables as well as the number of previous births by an individual, the MSA-level lagged male and female unemployment rates, the level of completed education of an individual, an interaction term for ethnicity and education and an interaction term for ethnicity and marital status. Sample weights are used in all regressions. All specifications are estimated by OLS. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. ***p value < 0.01, **p-value < 0.05