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Table 11 Economic welfare, by camp area

From: Considering the benefits of hosting refugees: evidence of refugee camps influencing local labour market activity and economic welfare in Rwanda

  Asset ownership index Subjective economic situation
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Gihembe x < 10 km 0.64*** 0.39*   0.16 − 0.24  
(0.21) (0.21) (0.14) (0.15)
 x Female-headed    0.32*    − 0.19
(0.18) (0.16)
 x Male-headed 0.44* − 0.26
(0.25) (0.18)
Kigeme x < 10 km 0.26* 0.36***   0.36*** 0.45***  
(0.13) (0.10)   (0.12) (0.12)  
 x Female-headed    0.17    0.14
(0.13) (0.20)
 x Male-headed 0.41*** 0.54***
(0.12) (0.14)
Kiziba x < 10 km 0.13 0.29**   0.00 0.19  
(0.15) (0.13) (0.11) (0.11)
 x Female-headed    0.28**    0.14
(0.11) (0.12)
 x Male-headed 0.29** 0.20
(0.14) (0.13)
Controls No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
R 2 0.06 0.28 0.29 0.02 0.12 0.13
Observations 913 913 913 913 913 913
  1. Note: ***p < 0.01, **p < .05, *p < 0.10. Estimates are based on a linear probability model, but robust to maximum likelihood estimation. Standard errors in parentheses are robust and clustered at the community level (46). See Fig. 3 in the Appendix for full heterogeneous effects across all relevant subgroups. Other covariates controlled for include female head, age head, married head, education head at lower secondary level, size of household, share of children (per adult), market distance, city distance, community population and nearest refugee camp