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Table 11 Transitions from private employment (marginal effects)

From: Transitions between informal and formal employment: results from a worker survey in Bangladesh

  To:
Government employee Private employee Casual worker Self-employed Family worker
Age: 26–35 − 0.0109 (0.0169) − 0.0366 (0.0327) 0.00445 (0.0216) 0.0626** (0.0285) − 0.0195** (0.00894)
Age: 36–45 − 0.0138 (0.0261) − 0.0528 (0.0470) 0.0425 (0.0357) 0.0332 (0.0366) − 0.00916 (0.0201)
Age: 46–55 0.0250 (0.0544) 0.00380 (0.0699) − 0.0165 (0.0429) 0.0110 (0.0468) − 0.0233*** (0.00766)
Age: 56+ − 0.0364*** (0.0129) 0.144*** (0.0410) − 0.0698*** (0.0138) − 0.0144 (0.0393) − 0.0233*** (0.00766)
Education: Class 6–9 0.00658 (0.0139) 0.0721* (0.0370) − 0.0636** (0.0310) − 0.00121 (0.0334) − 0.0139 (0.0150)
Education: Class 10 and SSC 0.0137 (0.0204) 0.112*** (0.0420) − 0.103*** (0.0302) 0.00176 (0.0361) − 0.0251* (0.0133)
Education: High school certificate or diploma 0.0528** (0.0262) 0.0577 (0.0548) − 0.135*** (0.0233) 0.0511 (0.0498) − 0.0262** (0.0134)
Education: Bachelors or higher 0.0285 (0.0209) 0.115*** (0.0411) − 0.132*** (0.0242) − 0.000418 (0.0407) − 0.0117 (0.0282)
Vocational training w/o certification 0.142* (0.0771) − 0.133 (0.0894) − 0.0422 (0.0352) − 0.00698 (0.0604) 0.0401 (0.0356)
Vocational training w/ certification 0.0417* (0.0233) 0.0747 (0.0547) − 0.0353 (0.0519) − 0.167*** (0.0425) 0.0861* (0.0484)
Male − 0.0273 (0.0328) 0.0202 (0.0467) 0.0214 (0.0223) 0.0435 (0.0379) − 0.0578* (0.0347)
Log (monthly wage) 0.00998 (0.0104) − 0.0314* (0.0174) 0.00572 (0.01000) 0.0166 (0.0152) − 0.000863 (0.00697)
Tenure 0.000149 (0.00197) − 0.00797** (0.00319) 0.000308 (0.00238) 0.0104*** (0.00250) − 0.00284 (0.00193)
Written contract − 0.0229 (0.0157) − 0.0356 (0.0496) 0.0384 (0.0439) 0.0309 (0.0411) − 0.0108 (0.0105)
Verbal contract − 0.0384*** (0.0148) 0.00232 (0.0311) 0.00629 (0.0207) 0.0325 (0.0278) − 0.00267 (0.0114)
Termination notice 0.0213 (0.0168) − 0.0388 (0.0348) 0.0139 (0.0265) 0.0194 (0.0285) − 0.0158** (0.00739)
Retirement money 0.00736 (0.0256) 0.0768* (0.0456) − 0.0771*** (0.00928) 0.00850 (0.0403) − 0.0156*** (0.00431)
Found preferred job 0.0513*** (0.0178) 0.176*** (0.0465) − 0.0502** (0.0223) − 0.168*** (0.0378) − 0.00851 (0.0119)
Preferred self-employment 0.00435 (0.0134) − 0.735*** (0.0416) − 0.00826 (0.0291) 0.661*** (0.0479) 0.0775** (0.0306)
Other reason for separation 0.00470 (0.0146) − 0.152*** (0.0407) 0.124*** (0.0303) 0.0230 (0.0365) 0.000385 (0.0124)
Observations 612 612 612 612 612
  1. Note: Marginal effects from multinomial regressions for workers transitioning away from private wage jobs. Casual worker includes day laborers, seasonal workers, domestic workers, and apprentices, interns or trainees. The retirement benefits variable is coded as one if the employer offers a provident fund, gratuity or pension plans, and is coded as zero if the employer does not offer any of them. The omitted categories are age 25 or less, primary education or less (class 5 or less), female, no vocational training, no contract, no termination notice, no retirement benefits, and involuntary separation. Other controls included in the regression analysis are the industry and size of the previous employer. Sampling weights are applied. Standard errors in parentheses. ***, ** and * denote that the p value is less than 0.01,  0.05, or 0.1, respectively