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Table 12 Transitions from casual employment (marginal effects)

From: Transitions between informal and formal employment: results from a worker survey in Bangladesh

  To:
Private employee Casual worker Self-employment
Age: 26–35 − 0.0474 (0.0598) 0.0846 (0.0782) − 0.0372 (0.0676)
Age: 36–45 − 0.185** (0.0761) 0.0236 (0.0900) 0.161** (0.0674)
Age: 46–55 − 0.148 (0.115) − 0.0105 (0.128) 0.159* (0.0830)
Age: 56+ − 0.313 (0.216) 0.272 (0.225) 0.0410 (0.171)
Education: Class 6–9 0.121* (0.0697) − 0.297*** (0.0994) 0.175** (0.0790)
Education: Class 10 and SSC 0.0799 (0.120) − 0.438*** (0.163) 0.358*** (0.116)
Education: High school certificate or diploma − 0.0313 (0.483) − 0.253 (0.409) 0.285* (0.149)
Education: Bachelors or higher
Vocational training w/o certification
Vocational training w/ certification 0.116 (0.148) − 0.110 (0.189) − 0.00555 (0.144)
Male − 0.0666 (0.0951) − 0.0636 (0.132) 0.130 (0.128)
Log(monthly wage) − 0.0196 (0.0454) − 0.00215 (0.0552) 0.0218 (0.0438)
Tenure 0.0133** (0.00520) − 0.0176*** (0.00608) 0.00436 (0.00422)
Written contract − 1.811 (1548) 1.536 (1253) 0.275 (294.8)
Verbal contract − 0.117** (0.0553) 0.0526 (0.0652) 0.0641 (0.0487)
Termination notice − 0.108 (0.0970) − 0.204 (0.134) 0.311*** (0.0980)
Retirement money
Found preferred job 0.396*** (0.0946) − 0.179 (0.118) − 0.217** (0.104)
Preferred self-employment − 1.721 (628.7) 0.940 (508.9) 0.781 (119.7)
Other reason for separation 0.161 (0.108) − 0.232** (0.108) 0.0713 (0.0738)
Observations 172 172 172
  1. Note: Marginal effects from multinomial regressions for workers transitioning away from casual employment. Casual worker includes day laborers, seasonal workers, domestic workers, and apprentices, interns or trainees. The retirement benefits variable is coded as one if the employer offers a provident fund, gratuity or pension plans, and is coded as zero if the employer does not offer any of them. The omitted categories are age 25 or less, primary education or less (class 5 or less), female, no vocational training, no contract, no termination notice, no retirement benefits, and involuntary separation. Other controls included in the regression analysis are the industry and size of the previous employer. Sampling weights are applied. Standard errors in parentheses. ***, ** and * denote that the p value is less than 0.01,  0.05, or 0.1, respectively