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Table 1 Mobility status by ethnicity, location, and year

From: Economic liberalisation and the mobility of minority groups: evidence from Māori in New Zealand

  Between 1996 and 2001 Between 2001 and 2006
Panel A Sole Māori Mixed Māori European Sole Māori Mixed Māori European
Same area unit 56.7 % 53.5 % 59.5 % 53.8 % 49.9 % 55.1 %
Changed area unit, same LMA 22.8 % 25.7 % 24.0 % 24.6 % 27.9 % 25.7 %
Changed LMA 18.6 % 18.2 % 13.7 % 18.9 % 18.3 % 14.8 %
Moved from overseas 1.9 % 2.6 % 2.8 % 2.6 % 3.9 % 4.3 %
Moved from outside LMA 20.5 % 20.8 % 16.5 % 21.5 % 22.2 % 19.2 %
Population 98,739 50,571 885,081 102,621 64,503 905,307
  Between 1996 and 2001 Between 2001 and 2006
Panel B Māori: Local iwi Māori: Non-local iwi Māori: No iwi affiliation Māori: Local iwi Māori: Non-local iwi Māori: No iwi affiliation
Same LMA 82.6 % 74.3 % 80.2 % 82.8 % 72.1 % 78.6 %
Changed LMA 17.4 % 25.7 % 19.7 % 17.2 % 27.8 % 21.4 %
Changed to local LMA 9.9 % 11.9 % 0.0 % 9.9 % 12.6 % 0.0 %
Changed to non-local LMA 7.5 % 13.8 % 0.0 % 7.3 % 15.3 % 0.0 %
Population 65,946 47,490 35,871 75,744 59,658 31,719
  1. Papps and Newell (2002) define 140 labour market areas (LMAs) using an algorithm that ensures that most people who live in one LMA work in it, and most people who work in one LMA live in it. We calculate for each LMA–iwi combination the proportion of the total iwi population living in that LMA relative to the proportion of the total European population living in it, based on aggregating the 1996, 2001, and 2006 censuses, and if this proportion exceeds 1.5, the LMA is considered a local LMA for the iwi. Classifications of Māori as living locally or non-locally to their iwi refer to the start of the 5-year period. All individual counts in the tables have been randomly rounded to base 3 for confidentiality reasons