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Table 2 Population characteristics by ethnicity and location

From: Economic liberalisation and the mobility of minority groups: evidence from Māori in New Zealand

  Sole Māori Mixed Māori European
  Local iwi Non-local iwi No iwi affiliation Local iwi Non-local iwi No iwi affiliation
Moved from outside LMA 17 % 28 % 20 % 17 % 26 % 21 % 18 %
Mean age 42.9 42.8 42.2 41.5 41.1 40.8 44.2
Female 55 % 50 % 47 % 60 % 59 % 51 % 52 %
Has no qualifications 44 % 39 % 51 % 29 % 22 % 33 % 22 %
Has school qualification 22 % 25 % 18 % 32 % 32 % 30 % 33 %
Post-school qualification 18 % 19 % 11 % 25 % 26 % 20 % 27 %
University degree 5 % 7 % 2 % 8 % 14 % 7 % 14 %
Missing qualifications 12 % 10 % 18 % 7 % 5 % 9 % 4 %
Single, never married 24 % 22 % 26 % 18 % 17 % 19 % 12 %
Legally/de facto married 61 % 63 % 56 % 68 % 69 % 66 % 76 %
Divorced/separated/widowed 14 % 15 % 14 % 13 % 13 % 14 % 12 %
Missing marital status 1 % 1 % 3 % 0 % 0 % 1 % 0 %
Employed full-time 53 % 59 % 52 % 60 % 62 % 60 % 68 %
Employed part-time 13 % 12 % 12 % 15 % 15 % 14 % 16 %
Unemployed 9 % 7 % 9 % 6 % 5 % 5 % 2 %
Not in the labour force 25 % 21 % 28 % 19 % 18 % 21 % 14 %
Mean real income $25,228 $28,920 $24,094 $30,184 $34,357 $31,096 $38,615
Income missing 8 % 7 % 16 % 4 % 4 % 8 % 4 %
Non-family member 23 % 26 % 30 % 18 % 19 % 22 % 19 %
Couple, no children 14 % 17 % 15 % 16 % 17 % 17 % 26 %
Couple, children 42 % 40 % 36 % 49 % 48 % 46 % 47 %
Single parent 21 % 17 % 19 % 18 % 16 % 16 % 8 %
Year = 2001 48 % 47 % 55 % 43 % 41 % 50 % 49 %
Year = 2006 52 % 53 % 45 % 57 % 59 % 50 % 51 %
Percent of overall population 5 % 3 % 2 % 2 % 2 % 1 % 85 %
Percent of Māori population 32 % 19 % 12 % 13 % 14 % 9 %  
Population 101,595 61,551 38,214 40,095 45,597 29,376 1,790,388
  1. See the notes in Table 1 for a description of how local LMAs for each iwi are defined. Real incomes are in 2006 dollars