1Note that this figure includes only the first generation of immigrants. Unfortunately, comparable data on immigrants across European countries including the second or third generation are not available.
2If the migrant-specific programmes were successful in integrating all newly-arriving immigrants into the labour market and into stable jobs, there would not be any need for participation in general ALMPs later on.
3Keywords, in different combinations, include: ALMP, labour market programmes, labor market programs, migrants, foreign, native, born, citizen, subgroup, sub-group, hetero; search engines used: Google Scholar, EconPapers and Econis.
4The definition of immigrants varies across studies. It usually means those with foreign citizenship, the foreign-born or individuals whose parents or grandparents were foreign-born. Most studies estimate heterogeneous ALMP treatment effects for several subgroups, one of them is immigrants. A few studies have a sample of only immigrants.
5When looking at employment, one study considers earnings. Another, evaluating the promotion of self-employment, uses yet a different outcome variable: neither unemployed nor in receipt of unemployment benefits.
6While we do have information on longer-run outcomes (38 estimates), there is not enough variation in them to permit a separate econometric analysis. One study reports only long-term estimates for 36 and 50 months after the programme (Groß V, Rothgang M, Schumacher M: A comprehensive evaluation of ESF financed labour market policy in Germany, unpublished). This study is dropped from the analysis.
7See the references section for the list of the 33 studies analysed.
8Since only 6 out of the 33 studies analyse migrant-specific programmes, our econometric analysis cannot differentiate between these types of ALMPs, as outlined in section 2. Instead, we define a dummy variable to indicate whether a programme is migrant-specific or general. We then classify migrant-specific programmes as training, wage subsidy, public works, services/sanctions or other programme, depending on their content.
9We distinguish identification strategies based on matching, instrumental variables and duration-analysis. All duration-analysis studies are identified, applying the timing-of-events approach or variants thereof.
10We categorised PhD dissertations as published studies because of the similarities between PhD supervision and the referee process.
11We do not intend to suggest that published papers meet different quality standards than working papers, given that we are agnostic about the relative quality of the various refereed journals and opt for estimates from working papers in some cases where the published version no longer presents all heterogeneous effect estimates, e.g., Gerfin and Lechner ().
12It is not straightforward how test statistics from different types of models can be transformed into a common distribution so that the test statistics can be compared directly. For instance, test statistics from a duration model and a matching model will have different distributions (and degrees of freedom).
13Unemployment rates and GDP growth rates were obtained from the Online OECD Employment database; see http://www.oecd.org/employment/employmentpoliciesanddata/onlineoecdemploymentdatabase.htm (accessed on 7 January, 2013).
14This result is in line with the findings of Lechner and Wunsch (), who show a positive correlation of the unemployment rate at the start of the programme with the effectiveness of training programmes in Germany.
15Statistik der Bundesagentur für Arbeit () defines immigrants as foreigners, naturalised citizens and ethnic German resettlers.
16 Several studies present estimates for the effects of multiple programmes. These estimates are based on different samples of people though. This is why we regard the estimates as independent. It may be argued that author’s individual research strategies introduce correlation between multiple estimates of one study – in which case clustering at the study level would be appropriate.
Studies used in meta-analysis
Ahmad, Nisar and Michael Svarer (2010): “The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate from Unemployment”. Working paper.
Aldashev, Alisher, Stephan L. Thomsen and Thomas Walter (2010): “Short-term training programs for immigrants in welfare: Do effects differ from natives and why?” ZEW Discussion Paper 10-027.
Andersson Joona, Pernilla and Lena Nekby (2012): “Intensive coaching of new immigrants: an evaluation based on random program assignment”. Scandinavian Journal of Economics 114(2), 575-600.
Andrén, Thomas and Daniela Andrén (2006): “Assessing the employment effects of vocational training using a one-factor model”. Applied Economics, 38, 2469-2486.
Andrén, Thomas and Björn Gustafsson (2004): “Income effects from labor market training programs in Sweden during the 1980s and 1990s”. International Journal of Manpower, 25, 8, 688-713.
Aslund, Olof and Per Johansson (2011): “Virtues of SIN: Can intensified public efforts help disadvantaged immigrants?” Evaluation Review 35(4), 399-427.
Bernhard, Sarah, Hermann Gartner and Gesine Stephan (2008): “Wage subsidies for needy job-seekers and their effect on individual labour market outcomes after the German reforms”. IAB Discussion Paper 21/2008.
Bernhard, Sarah and Thomas Kruppe (2012): “Effectiveness of further vocational training in Germany”. IAB Discussion Paper 10/2012.
Bernhard, Sarah and Joachim Wolff (2008): “Contracting out placement services in Germany”. IAB Discussion Paper 5/2008.
Caliendo, Marco and Steffen Künn (2010): Start-up subsidies for the unemployed: long-term evidence and effect heterogeneity”. IZA Discussion Paper No. 4790.
Clausen, Jens, Eskil Heinesen, Jans Hummelgaard, Leif Husted and Michael Rosholm (2009): “The effect of integration policies on the time until regular employment of newly arrived immigrants: Evidence from Denmark”. Labour Economics 16, 409-417
Delander, Lennart, Mats Hammarstedt, Jonas Mansson and Erik Nyberg (2005): “Integration of immigrants: The role of language proficiency and experience”. Evaluation Review 29/1, 24-41.
Gerfin, Michael and Michael Lechner (2000): “Microeconometric evaluation of the Active Labour Market Policy in Switzerland”. IZA Discussion Paper No. 154.
Hartig, Martina, Eva Jozwiak und Joachim Wolff (2008): “ Trainingsmaßnahmen: Für welche unter 25-jährigen Arbeitslosengeld II-Empfänger erhöhen sie die Beschäftigungschancen?” IAB-Forschungsbericht 6/2008.
Heinesen, Eskil, Leif Husted and Michael Rosholm (2011): “The effects of Active Labour Market Policies for immigrants receiving social assistance in Denmark”. IZA Discussion Paper No. 5632.
Hohmeyer, Katrin and Joachim Wolff (2007): A fistful of Euros. Does one-euro-job participation lead means-tested benefit recipients into regular jobs and out of unemployment benefit II receipt?” IAB Discussion Paper 32/2007.
Huber, Martin, Michael Lechner, Conny Wunsch and Thomas Walter (2009): “Do German Welfare-to-work programmes reduce welfare dependency and increase employment?” German Economic Review 12(2), 1-23.
Jahn, Elke and Michael Rosholm (2012): “Is Temporary Agency Employment a Stepping Stone for Immigrants?” IZA discussion paper no. 6405
Kjaersgaard, Lene and Eskil Heinesen (2012): “Effects of consecutive Active Labor Market Programs – evidence from immigrants in Denmark”. Ph.D. Dissertation.
Lalive, Rafael, Jan C. van Ours and Josef Zweimüller (2002): “The impact of Active Labor Market Programs on the Duration of Unemployment”. Institute for Empirical Research in Economics Working Paper No. 41.
Larsson, Laura, Lindqvist, Linus and Oskar Nordström Skans (2005): “Stepping-stones or dead-ends? An analysis of Swedish replacement contracts”. IFAU working paper 2005:18.
Prey, Hedwig (2000): “Evaluation of Training Programs in St. Gallen, Switzerland”. Schweiz. Zeitschrift für Volkswirtschaft und Statistik.
Richardson, Katarina and Gerard J. van den Berg (2008): “Duration dependence versus unobserved heterogeneity in treatment effects: Swedish labor market training and the transition rate to employment.” IFAU Working Paper 2008:7.
Ronsen, Marit and Torbjorn Skardhamar (2009): “Do welfare-to-work initiatives work? Evidence from an activation programme targeted at social assistance recipients in Norway”. Journal of European Social Policy 19, 61-77
Rosholm, Michael and Rune Vejlin (2010): “Reducing income transfers to refugee immigrants: Does start-help help you start?” Labour Economics 17, 258-275
Sarvimäki, Matti and Kari Hämäläinen (2012): “Assimilating immigrants. The impact of an integration program”. Updated version of HECER Discussion Paper No. 306.
Sianesi, Barbara (2001): “An evaluation of the active labour market programmes in Sweden”. IFAU working paper 2001:5
Svarer, Michael (2010): “The Effect of Sanctions on Exit from Unemployment: Evidence from Denmark”. Economica 78, 751-778
Thomsen, Stephan L. and Thomas Walter (2010): “Temporary extra jobs for immigrants: Merging lane to employment or dead-end road in welfare?” Labour 24(s1), 114-140.
Van den Berg, Gerard J., Bas van der Klaauw and Jan C. van Ours (2004): “Punitive sanctions and the transition rate from welfare to work”. Journal of Labor Economics 22(1).
Walter, Thomas (2012): “Germany’s 2005 Welfare Reform. Evaluating Key Characteristics With a Focus on Immigrants”. ZEW Economic Studies, Vol. 46, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg.
Wolff, Joachim and Anton Nivorozhkin (2008): “Start me up. The effectiveness of a self-employment programme for needy unemployed people in Germany”. IAB Discussion Paper 20/2008.
Wolff, Joachim and Eva Jozwiak (2008): “Do short-term training programmes active means-tested unemployment benefit recipients in Germany?” LASER Discussion Paper No. 12.